Functions
General functions
Mathematical functions and operators work in one of two ways:

Some mathematical functions perform calculations based on a single row. For example, rounding, taking a square root, multiplying, and similar functions can be used for values in a single row, returning a distinct value for each and every row. All mathematical operators, such as +, are applied one row at a time.
 Other mathematical functions, like averages and running totals, operate over many rows. These functions take many rows and reduce them to a single number, then display that same number on every row.
Function  Syntax  Purpose 

abs  abs(value)  Returns the absolute value of value. 
acos  acos(value)  Returns the inverse cosine of value. 
asin  asin(value)  Returns the inverse sine of value. 
atan  atan(value)  Returns the inverse tangent of value. 
beta_dist  beta_dist(value, alpha, beta, cumulative)  Returns the position of value on the beta distribution with parameters alpha and beta. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability. 
beta_inv  beta_inv(probability, alpha, beta)  Returns the position of probability on the inverse cumulative beta distribution with parameters alpha and beta. 
binom_dist  binom_dist(num_successes, num_tests, probability, cumulative)  Returns the probability of getting num_successes successes in num_tests tests with the given probability of success. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability. 
binom_inv  binom_inv(num_tests, test_probability, target_probability)  Returns the smallest number k such that binom(k, num_tests, test_probability, yes) >= target_probability. 
ceiling  ceiling(value)  Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to value. 
chisq_dist  chisq_dist(value, dof, cumulative)  Returns the position of value on the gamma distribution with dof degrees of freedom. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability. 
chisq_inv  chisq_inv(probability, dof)  Returns the position of probability on the inverse cumulative gamma distribution with dof degrees of freedom. 
chisq_test  hisq_test(actual, expected)  Returns the probability for the chisquared test for independence between actual and expected data. actual can be a column or a column of lists, and expected must be the same type. 
combin  combin(set_size, selection_size)  Returns the number of ways of choosing selection_size elements from a set of size set_size. 
confidence_norm  confidence_norm(alpha, stdev, n)  Returns half the width of the normal confidence interval at significance level alpha, standard deviation stdev, and sample size n. 
confidence_t  confidence_t(alpha, stdev, n)  Returns half the width of theStudent’stdistribution confidence intervalat significance level alpha, standard deviation stdev, and sample size n (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student's_tdistribution#Confidence_intervals). 
correl  correl(column_1, column_2)  Returns the correlation coefficient of column_1 and column_2. 
cos  cos(value)  Returns the cosine of value. 
count  count(expression)  Returns the count of nonnull values in the column defined by expression, unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the count in each List. 
count_distinct  count_distinct(expression)  Returns the count of distinct nonnull values in the column defined by expression, unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the count in each List. 
covar_pop  covar_pop(column_1, column_2)  Returns the population covariance of column_1 and column_2. 
covar_samp  covar_samp(column_1, column_2)  Returns the sample covariance of column_1 and column_2. 
degrees  degrees(value)  Converts value from radians to degrees. 
exp  exp(value)  Returns e to the power of value. 
expon_dist  expon_dist(value, lambda, cumulative)  Returns the position of value on the exponential distribution with parameter lambda. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability. 
f_dist  f_dist(value, dof_1, dof_2, cumulative)  Returns the position of value on the F distribution with parameters dof_1 and dof_2. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability. 
f_inv  f_inv(probability, dof_1, dof_2)  Returns the position of probability on the inverse cumulative F distribution with parameters dof_1 and dof_2. 
fact  fact(value)  Returns the factorial of value. 
floor  floor(value)  Returns the largest integer less than or equal to value. 
gamma_dist  gamma_dist(value, alpha, beta, cumulative)  Returns the position of value on the gamma distribution with parameters alpha and beta. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability. 
gamma_inv  gamma_inv(probability, alpha, beta)  Returns the position of probability on the inverse cumulative gamma distribution with parameters alpha and beta. 
geomean  geomean(expression)  Returns the geometric mean of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the geometric mean of each List. 
hypgeom_dist  hypgeom_dist (sample_successes, sample_size, population_successes, population_size, cumulative)  Returns the probability of getting sample_successes from the given sample_size, number of population_successes, and population_size. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability. 
intercept  intercept(y_column, x_column)  Returns the intercept of the linear regression line through the points determined by y_column and x_column. 
kurtosis  kurtosis(expression)  Returns the sample excess kurtosis of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the sample excess kurtosis of each List. 
large  large(expression, k)  Returns the kth largest value of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the kth largest value of each List. 
ln  ln(value)  Returns the natural logarithm of value. 
log  log(value)  Returns the base 10 logarithm of value. 
match  match(value, expression)  Returns the row number of the first occurence of value in the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the position of value in each List. 
max  max(expression)  Returns the max of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the max of each List. 
mean  mean(expression)  Returns the mean of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the mean of each List. 
median  median(expression)  Returns the median of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the median of each List. 
min  min(expression)  Returns the min of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the min of each List. 
mod  mod(value, divisor)  Returns the remainder of dividing value by divisor. 
mode  mode(expression)  Returns the mode of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the mode of each List. 
multinomial  multinomial(value_1, value_2, ...)  Returns the factorial of the sum of the arguments divided by the product of each of their factorials. 
negbinom_dist  negbinom_dist(num_failures, num_successes, probability, cumulative)  Returns the probability of getting num_failures failures before getting num_successes successes, with the given probability of success. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability. 
norm_dist  norm_dist(value, mean, stdev, cumulative)  Returns the position of value on the normal distribution with the given mean and stdev. If cumulative = yes, then returns the cumulative probability. 
norm_inv  norm_inv(probability, mean, stdev)  Returns the position of probability on the inverse normal cumulative distribution. 
norm_s_dist  norm_s_dist(value, cumulative)  Returns the position of value on the standard normal distribution. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability. 
norm_s_inv  norm_s_inv(probability)  Returns the position of probability on the inverse standard normal cumulative distribution. 
percent_rank  percent_rank(column, value)  Returns the rank of value in column as a percentage from 0 to 1 inclusive. 
percentile  percentile(value_column, percentile_value)  Returns the value from the column created by expression corresponding to the given percentile_value, unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the percentile value for each List. Note: percentile_value must be between 0 and 1, else this returns null. 
pi  pi()  Returns the value of pi. 
poisson_dist  poisson_dist(value, lambda, cumulative)  Returns the position of value on the poisson distribution with parameter lambda. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability. 
power  power(base, exponent)  Returns base raised to the power of exponent. 
product  product(expression)  Returns the product of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the product of each List. 
radians  radians(value)  Converts value from degrees to radians. 
rand  rand()  Returns a random number between 0 and 1. 
rank  rank(value, expression)  Returns the rank of value in the column created by expression. For example, if you want to rank orders by their total sale price, you could use rank(${order_items.total_sale_price},${order_items.total_sale_price}), which gives a rank for each value of order_items.total_sale_price in your query when comparing it to the entire column of order_items.total_sale_price in your query. In the case where the expression defines multiple lists, this function returns the relative size of the value in each list. 
rank_avg  rank_avg(value, expression)  Returns the average rank of value in the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of lists, in which case returns the average rank of value in each list. 
round  round(value, num_decimals)  Returns value rounded to num_decimals decimal places. 
running_product  running_product (value_column)  Returns a running product of the values in value_column. 
running_total  running_total(value_column)  Returns a running total of the values in value_column. 
skew  skew(expression)  Returns the sample skewness of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the sample skewness of each List. 
slope  slope(y_column, x_column)  Returns the slope of the linear regression line through points determined by y_column and x_column. 
small  small(expression, k)  Returns the kth smallest value of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the kth smallest value of each List. 
sqrt  sqrt(value)  Returns the square root of value. 
stddev_pop  stddev_pop(expression)  Returns the standard deviation (population) of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the standard deviation (population) of each List. 
stddev_samp  stddev_pop(expression)  Returns the standard deviation (sample) of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the standard deviation (sample) of each List. 
sum  sum(expression)  Returns the sum of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the sum of each List. 
t_dist  t_dist(value, dof, cumulative)  Returns the position of value on the Student’s tdistribution with dof degrees of freedeom. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student's_tdistribution). 
t_inv  t_inv(probability, dof)  Returns the position of probability on the inverse normal cumulative distribution with dof degrees of freedom. 
t_test  t_test(column_1, column_2, tails, type)  Returns the result of a Student’s ttest on the data from column_1 and column_2, using 1 or 2 tails. type: 1 = paired, 2 = homoscedastic, 3 = heteroscedastic (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student%27s_ttest). 
tan  tan(value)  Returns the tangent of value. 
var_pop  var_pop(expression)  Returns the variance (population) of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the variance (population) of each List. 
var_samp  var_pop(expression)  Returns the variance (sample) of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the variance (sample) of each List. 
weibull_dist  weibull_dist(value, shape, scale, cumulative)  Returns the position of value on the Weibull distribution with parameters shape and scale. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability. 
z_test  z_test(data, value, stdev)  Returns the onetailed pvalue of the ztest using the existing data and stdev on the hypothesized mean value. 
String and Date functions
String Functions
String functions operate on sentences, words, or letters, which are collectively called “strings.” You can use string functions to capitalize words and letters, extract parts of a phrase, check to see if a word or letter is in a phrase, or replace elements of a word or phrase. They can also be used to format the data returned in the table.
Function  Syntax  Purpose 

concat  concat(value_1, value_2, ...)  Returns value_1, value_2, ..., value_n joined as one string 
contains  contains(string, search_string)  Returns Yes if string contains search_string, and No otherwise 
length  length(string)  Returns the number of characters in string 
lower  lower(string)  Returns string with all characters converted to lower case 
position  position(string, search_string)  Returns the start index of search_string in string if it exists, and 0 otherwise 
replace  replace(string, old_string, new_string)  Returns string with all occurrences of old_string replaced with new_string 
substring  substring(string, start_position, length)  Returns the substring of string beginning at start_position consisting of length characters 
to_number  to_number(string)  Returns the number represented by string, or null if the string cannot be converted 
to_string  to_string(value)  Returns the string representation of value, or an empty string if value is null 
upper  upper(string)  Returns string with all characters converted to upper case 
Date Functions
Date functions enable you to work with dates and times.
Function  Syntax  Purpose 

add_days  add_days(number, date)  Adds number days to date 
add_hours  add_hours(number, date)  Adds number hours to date 
add_minutes  add_minutes(number, date)  Adds number minutes to date 
add_months  add_months(number, date)  Adds number months to date 
add_seconds  add_seconds(number, date)  Adds number seconds to date 
add_years  add_years(number, date)  Adds number years to date 
date  date(year, month, day)  Returns “yearmonthday” date or null if the date would be invalid 
date_time  date_time(year, month, day, hours, minutes, seconds)  Returns “yearmonthday hours:minutes:seconds” date or null if the date would be invalid 
diff_days  diff_days(start_date, end_date)  Returns the number of days between start_date and end_date 
diff_hours  diff_hours(start_date, end_date)  Returns the number of hours between start_date and end_date 
diff_minutes  diff_minutes(start_date, end_date)  Returns the number of minutes between start_date and end_date 
diff_months  diff_months(start_date, end_date)  Returns the number of months between start_date and end_date 
diff_seconds  diff_seconds(start_date, end_date)  Returns the number of seconds between start_date and end_date 
diff_years  diff_years(start_date, end_date)  Returns the number of years between start_date and end_date 
extract_days  extract_days(date)  Extracts the days from date 
extract_hours  extract_hours(date)  Extracts the hours from date 
extract_minutes  extract_minutes(date)  Extracts the minutes from date 
extract_months  extract_months(date)  Extracts the months from date 
extract_seconds  extract_seconds(date)  Extracts the seconds from date 
extract_years  extract_years(date)  Extracts the years from date 
now  now()  Returns the current date and time 
to_date  to_date(string)  Returns the date and time corresponding to string (YYYY, YYYYMM, YYYYMMDD, YYYYMMDD hh, YYYYMMDD hh:mm, or YYYYMMDD hh:mm:ss) 
trunc_days  trunc_days(date)  Truncates date to days 
trunc_hours  trunc_hours(date)  Truncates date to hours 
trunc_minutes  trunc_minutes(date)  Truncates date to minutes 
trunc_months  trunc_months(date)  Truncates date to months 
trunc_years  trunc_years(date)  Truncates date to years 
Logical Functions, Operators and Constants
Logical functions and operators are used to assess whether something is true or false. Expressions using these elements take a value, evaluate it against some criteria, return Yes if the criteria are met, and No if the criteria are not met. There are also various logical operators for comparing values and combining logical expressions.
Function  Syntax  Purpose 

coalesce  coalesce(value_1, value_2, ...)  Returns the first nonnull value in value_1, value_2, ..., value_n if found and null otherwis 
if  if(yesno_expression, value_if_yes, value_if_no)  If yesno_expression evaluates to Yes, returns the value_if_yes value. Otherwise, returns the value_if_no value 
is_null  is_null(value)  Returns Yes if value is null, and No otherwise 
Operator  Syntax  Purpose  Note 

=  value_1 = value_2  Returns Yes if value_1 is equal to value_2, and No otherwise  The following comparison operators can be used with any data type 
!=  value_1 != value_2  Returns Yes if value_1 is not equal to value_2, and No otherwise  The following comparison operators can be used with any data type 
>  value_1 > value_2  Returns Yes if value_1 is greater than value_2, and No otherwise  The following comparison operators only can be used with numbers and dates 
<  value_1 < value_2  Returns Yes if value_1 is less than value_2, and No otherwise  The following comparison operators only can be used with numbers and dates 
>=  value_1 >= value_2  Returns Yes if value_1 is greater than or equal to value_2, and No otherwise  The following comparison operators only can be used with numbers and dates 
<=  value_1 <= value_2  Returns Yes if value_1 is less than or equal to value_2, and No otherwise  The following comparison operators only can be used with numbers and dates 
AND  value_1 AND value_2  Returns Yes if both value_1 and value_2 are Yes, and No otherwise  These logical operators must be capitalized. Logical operators written in lowercase will not work 
OR  value_1 OR value_2  Returns Yes if either value_1 or value_2 is Yes, and No otherwise  These logical operators must be capitalized. Logical operators written in lowercase will not work 
NOT  NOT value  Returns Yes if value is No, and Yes otherwise  These logical operators must be capitalized. Logical operators written in lowercase will not work 
Logical Constants
You can use logical constants within expressions. These constants are always written in lowercase and have the following meanings.
Constant  Meaning 

yes  True 
no  False 
null  There is no value 
Note that the constants yes and no, are the special symbols that mean true or false within expressions. In contrast, using quotes such as in "yes" and "no" creates literal strings with those values.
Logical expressions evaluate to true or false without requiring an if function. For example, this:
if(${field} > 100, yes, no)
is equivalent to this:
${field} > 100
You also can use null to indicate no value. For example, you may want to determine if a field is empty, or assign an empty value in a certain situation. This formula returns no value if the field is less than 1, or the value of the field if it is more than 1:
if(${field} < 1, null, ${field})
Combining AND and OR Operators
AND operators are evaluated before OR operators, if you don’t otherwise specify the order with parentheses. Thus, the following expression without additional parentheses:
if (
${order_items.days_to_process}>=4 OR
${order_items.shipping_time}>5 AND
${order_facts.is_first_purchase},
"review", "okay")
would be evaluated as:
if (
${order_items.days_to_process}>=4 OR
(${order_items.shipping_time}>5 AND ${order_facts.is_first_purchase}),
"review", "okay")
Positional Functions
When creating custom calculations, you can use positional transformation functions to extract information about fields in different rows or pivot columns. You can also create lists and retrieve the current row or pivot column index.
If your Explore contains totals, you can reference total values for columns and rows:
Function  Syntax  Purpose 

:total  ${field:total}  Returns the column total of the field 
:row_total  ${field:row_total}  Returns the row total of the field 
RowRelated Functions
Some of these functions use the relative positions of rows, so changing the sort order of the rows affects the results of the functions.
Function  Syntax  Purpose 

index  index(expression, n)  Returns the value of the nth element of the column created by expression, unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the nth element of each list 
list  list(value_1, value_2, ...)  Creates a List out of the given values 
lookup  lookup(value, lookup_column, result_column)  Returns the value in result_column that is in the same row as value is in lookup_column 
offset  offset(column, row_offset)  Returns the value of row (n + row_offset) in column, where n is the current row number 
offset_list  offset_list(column, row_offset, num_values)  Returns a List of the num_values values starting at row (n + row_offset) in column, where n is the current row number 
row  row()  Returns the current row number 
PivotRelated Functions
Some of these functions use the relative positions of pivot columns, so changing the sort order of the pivoted dimension affects the results of those functions.
Function  Syntax  Purpose 

pivot_column  pivot_column()  Returns the index of the current pivot column 
pivot_index  pivot_index(expression, pivot_index)  Evaluates expression in the context of the pivot column at position pivot_index (1 for first pivot, 2 second pivot, etc.). Returns null for unpivoted result 
pivot_offset  pivot_offset(pivot_expression, col_offset)  Returns the value of the pivot_expression in position (n + col_offset), where n is the current pivot column position. Returns null for unpivoted results 
pivot_offset_list  pivot_offset_list(pivot_expression, col_offset, num_values)  Returns a List of the the num_values values in pivot_expression starting at position (n + col_offset), where n is the current pivot index. Returns null for unpivoted results 
pivot_row  pivot_row(expression)  Returns the pivoted values of expression as a List. Returns null for unpivoted results. 
pivot_where  pivot_where(select_expression, expression)  Returns the value of expression for the pivot column which uniquely satisfies select_expression or null if such a unique column does not exist. 
The specific pivot functions you use determine whether the table calculation is displayed next to each pivoted column, or is displayed as a single column at the end of the table.
Updated over 3 years ago