# Functions

## General functions

Mathematical functions and operators work in one of two ways:

• Some mathematical functions perform calculations based on a single row. For example, rounding, taking a square root, multiplying, and similar functions can be used for values in a single row, returning a distinct value for each and every row. All mathematical operators, such as +, are applied one row at a time.

• Other mathematical functions, like averages and running totals, operate over many rows. These functions take many rows and reduce them to a single number, then display that same number on every row.
FunctionSyntaxPurpose
abs abs(value)Returns the absolute value of value.
acos acos(value)Returns the inverse cosine of value.
asin asin(value)Returns the inverse sine of value.
atan atan(value)Returns the inverse tangent of value.
beta_dist beta_dist(value, alpha,
beta, cumulative)
Returns the position of value on the beta distribution with parameters alpha and beta. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability.
beta_inv beta_inv(probability,
alpha, beta)
Returns the position of probability on the inverse cumulative beta distribution with parameters alpha and beta.
binom_dist binom_dist(num_successes,
num_tests,
probability, cumulative)
Returns the probability of getting num_successes successes in num_tests tests with the given probability of success. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability.
binom_inv binom_inv(num_tests,
test_probability,
target_probability)
Returns the smallest number k such that binom(k, num_tests,
test_probability, yes)
>= target_probability.
ceiling ceiling(value)Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to value.
chisq_dist chisq_dist(value, dof,
cumulative)
Returns the position of value on the gamma distribution with dof degrees of freedom. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability.
chisq_inv chisq_inv(probability, dof)Returns the position of probability on the inverse cumulative gamma distribution with dof degrees of freedom.
chisq_test hisq_test(actual,
expected)
Returns the probability for the chi-squared test for independence between actual and expected data. actual can be a column or a column of lists, and expected must be the same type.
combin combin(set_size,
selection_size)
Returns the number of ways of choosing selection_size elements from a set of size set_size.
confidence_norm confidence_norm(alpha,
stdev, n)
Returns half the width of the normal confidence interval at significance level alpha, standard deviation stdev, and sample size n.
confidence_t confidence_t(alpha,
stdev, n)
Returns half the width of theStudent’st-distribution confidence intervalat significance level alpha, standard deviation stdev, and sample size n (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student's_t-distribution#Confidence_intervals).
correl correl(column_1, column_2)Returns the correlation coefficient of column_1 and column_2.
cos cos(value)Returns the cosine of value.
count count(expression)Returns the count of non-null values in the column defined by expression, unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the count in each List.
count_distinct count_distinct(expression)Returns the count of distinct non-null values in the column defined by expression, unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the count in each List.
covar_pop covar_pop(column_1,
column_2)
Returns the population covariance of column_1 and column_2.
covar_samp covar_samp(column_1,
column_2)
Returns the sample covariance of column_1 and column_2.
degrees degrees(value)Converts value from radians to degrees.
exp exp(value)Returns e to the power of value.
expon_dist expon_dist(value, lambda,
cumulative)
Returns the position of value on the exponential distribution with parameter lambda. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability.
f_dist f_dist(value, dof_1,
dof_2, cumulative)
Returns the position of value on the F distribution with parameters dof_1 and dof_2. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability.
f_inv f_inv(probability, dof_1,
dof_2)
Returns the position of probability on the inverse cumulative F distribution with parameters dof_1 and dof_2.
fact fact(value)Returns the factorial of value.
floor floor(value)Returns the largest integer less than or equal to value.
gamma_dist gamma_dist(value, alpha,
beta, cumulative)
Returns the position of value on the gamma distribution with parameters alpha and beta. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability.
gamma_inv gamma_inv(probability,
alpha, beta)
Returns the position of probability on the inverse cumulative gamma distribution with parameters alpha and beta.
geomean geomean(expression)Returns the geometric mean of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the geometric mean of each List.
hypgeom_dist hypgeom_dist
(sample_successes,
sample_size,
population_successes,
population_size,
cumulative)
Returns the probability of getting sample_successes from the given sample_size, number of population_successes, and population_size. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability.
intercept intercept(y_column,
x_column)
Returns the intercept of the linear regression line through the points determined by y_column and x_column.
kurtosis kurtosis(expression)Returns the sample excess kurtosis of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the sample excess kurtosis of each List.
large large(expression, k)Returns the kth largest value of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the kth largest value of each List.
ln ln(value)Returns the natural logarithm of value.
log log(value)Returns the base 10 logarithm of value.
match match(value, expression)Returns the row number of the first occurence of value in the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the position of value in each List.
max max(expression)Returns the max of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the max of each List.
mean mean(expression)Returns the mean of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the mean of each List.
median median(expression)Returns the median of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the median of each List.
min min(expression)Returns the min of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the min of each List.
mod mod(value, divisor)Returns the remainder of dividing value by divisor.
mode mode(expression)Returns the mode of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the mode of each List.
multinomial multinomial(value_1,
value_2, ...)
Returns the factorial of the sum of the arguments divided by the product of each of their factorials.
negbinom_dist negbinom_dist(num_failures,
num_successes,
probability,
cumulative)
Returns the probability of getting num_failures failures before getting num_successes successes, with the given probability of success. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability.
norm_dist norm_dist(value, mean,
stdev, cumulative)
Returns the position of value on the normal distribution with the given mean and stdev. If cumulative = yes, then returns the cumulative probability.
norm_inv norm_inv(probability, mean,
stdev)
Returns the position of probability on the inverse normal cumulative distribution.
norm_s_dist norm_s_dist(value,
cumulative)
Returns the position of value on the standard normal distribution. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability.
norm_s_inv norm_s_inv(probability)Returns the position of probability on the inverse standard normal cumulative distribution.
percent_rank percent_rank(column, value)Returns the rank of value in column as a percentage from 0 to 1 inclusive.
percentile percentile(value_column,
percentile_value)
Returns the value from the column created by expression corresponding to the given percentile_value, unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the percentile value for each List. Note: percentile_value must be between 0 and 1, else this returns null.
pi pi()Returns the value of pi.
poisson_dist poisson_dist(value, lambda,
cumulative)
Returns the position of value on the poisson distribution with parameter lambda. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability.
power power(base, exponent)Returns base raised to the power of exponent.
product product(expression)Returns the product of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the product of each List.
rand rand()Returns a random number between 0 and 1.
rank rank(value, expression)Returns the rank of value in the column created by expression. For example, if you want to rank orders by their total sale price, you could use rank(\${order_items.total_sale_price},\${order_items.total_sale_price}), which gives a rank for each value of order_items.total_sale_price in your query when comparing it to the entire column of order_items.total_sale_price in your query. In the case where the expression defines multiple lists, this function returns the relative size of the value in each list.
rank_avg rank_avg(value, expression)Returns the average rank of value in the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of lists, in which case returns the average rank of value in each list.
round round(value, num_decimals)Returns value rounded to num_decimals decimal places.
running_product running_product
(value_column)
Returns a running product of the values in value_column.
running_total running_total(value_column)Returns a running total of the values in value_column.
skew skew(expression)Returns the sample skewness of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the sample skewness of each List.
slope slope(y_column, x_column)Returns the slope of the linear regression line through points determined by y_column and x_column.
small small(expression, k)Returns the kth smallest value of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the kth smallest value of each List.
sqrt sqrt(value)Returns the square root of value.
stddev_pop stddev_pop(expression)Returns the standard deviation (population) of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the standard deviation (population) of each List.
stddev_samp stddev_pop(expression)Returns the standard deviation (sample) of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the standard deviation (sample) of each List.
sum sum(expression)Returns the sum of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the sum of each List.
t_dist t_dist(value, dof,
cumulative)
Returns the position of value on the Student’s t-distribution with dof degrees of freedeom. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student's_t-distribution).
t_inv t_inv(probability, dof)Returns the position of probability on the inverse normal cumulative distribution with dof degrees of freedom.
t_test t_test(column_1, column_2,
tails, type)
Returns the result of a Student’s t-test on the data from column_1 and column_2, using 1 or 2 tails. type: 1 = paired, 2 = homoscedastic, 3 = heteroscedastic (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Student%27s_t-test).
tan tan(value)Returns the tangent of value.
var_pop var_pop(expression)Returns the variance (population) of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the variance (population) of each List.
var_samp var_pop(expression)Returns the variance (sample) of the column created by expression unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the variance (sample) of each List.
weibull_dist weibull_dist(value, shape,
scale, cumulative)
Returns the position of value on the Weibull distribution with parameters shape and scale. If cumulative = yes, returns the cumulative probability.
z_test z_test(data, value, stdev)Returns the one-tailed p-value of the z-test using the existing data and stdev on the hypothesized mean value.

## String and Date functions

String Functions

String functions operate on sentences, words, or letters, which are collectively called “strings.” You can use string functions to capitalize words and letters, extract parts of a phrase, check to see if a word or letter is in a phrase, or replace elements of a word or phrase. They can also be used to format the data returned in the table.

FunctionSyntaxPurpose
concat concat(value_1, value_2, ...)Returns value_1, value_2, ..., value_n joined as one string
contains contains(string, search_string)Returns Yes if string contains search_string, and No otherwise
length length(string)Returns the number of characters in string
lower lower(string)Returns string with all characters converted to lower case
position position(string, search_string)Returns the start index of search_string in string if it exists, and 0 otherwise
replace replace(string, old_string, new_string)Returns string with all occurrences of old_string replaced with new_string
substring substring(string, start_position, length)Returns the substring of string beginning at start_position consisting of length characters
to_number to_number(string)Returns the number represented by string, or null if the string cannot be converted
to_string to_string(value)Returns the string representation of value, or an empty string if value is null
upper upper(string)Returns string with all characters converted to upper case

Date Functions

Date functions enable you to work with dates and times.

FunctionSyntaxPurpose
date date(year, month, day)Returns “year-month-day” date or null if the date would be invalid
date_time date_time(year, month, day,
hours, minutes, seconds)
Returns
“year-month-day hours:minutes:seconds” date or null if the date would be invalid
diff_days diff_days(start_date, end_date)Returns the number of days between start_date and end_date
diff_hours diff_hours(start_date, end_date)Returns the number of hours between start_date and end_date
diff_minutes diff_minutes(start_date, end_date)Returns the number of minutes between start_date and end_date
diff_months diff_months(start_date, end_date)Returns the number of months between start_date and end_date
diff_seconds diff_seconds(start_date, end_date)Returns the number of seconds between start_date and end_date
diff_years diff_years(start_date, end_date)Returns the number of years between start_date and end_date
extract_days extract_days(date)Extracts the days from date
extract_hours extract_hours(date)Extracts the hours from date
extract_minutes extract_minutes(date)Extracts the minutes from date
extract_months extract_months(date)Extracts the months from date
extract_seconds extract_seconds(date)Extracts the seconds from date
extract_years extract_years(date)Extracts the years from date
now now()Returns the current date and time
to_date to_date(string)Returns the date and time corresponding to string (YYYY, YYYY-MM, YYYY-MM-DD, YYYY-MM-DD hh, YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm, or YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss)
trunc_daystrunc_days(date)Truncates date to days
trunc_hours trunc_hours(date)Truncates date to hours
trunc_minutes trunc_minutes(date)Truncates date to minutes
trunc_months trunc_months(date)Truncates date to months
trunc_years trunc_years(date)Truncates date to years

Logical Functions, Operators and Constants

Logical functions and operators are used to assess whether something is true or false. Expressions using these elements take a value, evaluate it against some criteria, return Yes if the criteria are met, and No if the criteria are not met. There are also various logical operators for comparing values and combining logical expressions.

FunctionSyntaxPurpose
coalesce coalesce(value_1, value_2, ...)Returns the first non-null value in value_1, value_2, ..., value_n if found and null otherwis
if if(yesno_expression,
value_if_yes,
value_if_no)
If yesno_expression evaluates to Yes, returns the value_if_yes value. Otherwise, returns the value_if_no value
is_null is_null(value)Returns Yes if value is null, and No otherwise
OperatorSyntaxPurposeNote
= value_1 = value_2Returns Yes if value_1 is equal to value_2, and No otherwiseThe following comparison operators can be used with any data type
!= value_1 != value_2Returns Yes if value_1 is not equal to value_2, and No otherwiseThe following comparison operators can be used with any data type
> value_1 > value_2Returns Yes if value_1 is greater than value_2, and No otherwiseThe following comparison operators only can be used with numbers and dates
< value_1 < value_2Returns Yes if value_1 is less than value_2, and No otherwiseThe following comparison operators only can be used with numbers and dates
>= value_1 >= value_2Returns Yes if value_1 is greater than or equal to value_2, and No otherwiseThe following comparison operators only can be used with numbers and dates
<= value_1 <= value_2Returns Yes if value_1 is less than or equal to value_2, and No otherwiseThe following comparison operators only can be used with numbers and dates
AND value_1 AND value_2Returns Yes if both value_1 and value_2 are Yes, and No otherwiseThese logical operators must be capitalized. Logical operators written in lowercase will not work
OR value_1 OR value_2Returns Yes if either value_1 or value_2 is Yes, and No otherwiseThese logical operators must be capitalized. Logical operators written in lowercase will not work
NOT NOT valueReturns Yes if value is No, and Yes otherwiseThese logical operators must be capitalized. Logical operators written in lowercase will not work

Logical Constants

You can use logical constants within expressions. These constants are always written in lowercase and have the following meanings.

ConstantMeaning
yes True
no False
null There is no value

Note that the constants yes and no, are the special symbols that ​mean true or false within expressions. In contrast, using quotes such as in "yes" and "no" creates literal strings with those values.
Logical expressions evaluate to true or false without requiring an if function. For example, this:

if(\${field} > 100, yes, no)

is equivalent to this:

\${field} > 100

You also can use null to indicate no value. For example, you may want to determine if a field is empty, or assign an empty value in a certain situation. This formula returns no value if the field is less than 1, or the value of the field if it is more than 1:
if(\${field} < 1, null, \${field})

Combining AND and OR Operators

AND operators are evaluated before OR operators, if you don’t otherwise specify the order with parentheses. Thus, the following expression without additional parentheses:

if (
\${order_items.days_to_process}>=4 OR
\${order_items.shipping_time}>5 AND
\${order_facts.is_first_purchase},
"review", "okay")

would be evaluated as:

if (
\${order_items.days_to_process}>=4 OR
(\${order_items.shipping_time}>5 AND \${order_facts.is_first_purchase}),
"review", "okay")

Positional Functions

When creating custom calculations, you can use positional transformation functions to extract information about fields in different rows or pivot columns. You can also create lists and retrieve the current row or pivot column index.
If your Explore contains totals, you can reference total values for columns and rows:

FunctionSyntaxPurpose
:total \${field:total}Returns the column total of the field
:row_total \${field:row_total}Returns the row total of the field

Row-Related Functions

Some of these functions use the relative positions of rows, so changing the sort order of the rows affects the results of the functions.

FunctionSyntaxPurpose
index index(expression, n)Returns the value of the nth element of the column created by expression, unless expression defines a column of Lists, in which case returns the nth element of each list
list list(value_1, value_2, ...)Creates a List out of the given values
lookup lookup(value, lookup_column,
result_column)
Returns the value in result_column that is in the same row as value is in lookup_column
offset offset(column, row_offset)Returns the value of row (n + row_offset) in column, where n is the current row number
offset_list offset_list(column, row_offset,
num_values)
Returns a List of the num_values values starting at row (n + row_offset) in column, where n is the current row number
row row()Returns the current row number

Pivot-Related Functions

Some of these functions use the relative positions of pivot columns, so changing the sort order of the pivoted dimension affects the results of those functions.

FunctionSyntaxPurpose
pivot_column pivot_column()Returns the index of the current pivot column
pivot_index pivot_index(expression, pivot_index)Evaluates expression in the context of the pivot column at position pivot_index (1 for first pivot, 2 second pivot, etc.). Returns null for unpivoted result
pivot_offset pivot_offset(pivot_expression, col_offset)Returns the value of the pivot_expression in position (n + col_offset), where n is the current pivot column position. Returns null for unpivoted results
pivot_offset_list pivot_offset_list(pivot_expression,
col_offset, num_values)
Returns a List of the the num_values values in pivot_expression starting at position (n + col_offset), where n is the current pivot index. Returns null for unpivoted results
pivot_row pivot_row(expression)Returns the pivoted values of expression as a List. Returns null for unpivoted results.
pivot_where pivot_where(select_expression, expression)Returns the value of expression for the pivot column which uniquely satisfies select_expression or null if such a unique column does not exist.

The specific pivot functions you use determine whether the table calculation is displayed next to each pivoted column, or is displayed as a single column at the end of the table.